E-mail: secretary@worldmaterialsconference.com | USA : +1-646-828-7579, UK : +44-203-695-1242 | August 24-26, 2017, Barcelona, Spain  


Next Generation Materials and Technologies
Process Modeling, Simulation, Optimization and Control
Production issues of Polymerization Processes
Surface Science and Engineering
Sustainability, Innovation, Intensification of Polymer Processes and Future Trends
Thin films, Corrosion and degradation of materials
Carbon nanomaterials, devices and technologies
Developing Trends in Polymer Chemistry
Electronic, Optical, and Magnetic Materials
Emerging Areas of Materials Science
Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Multi-Scale Modeling
Materials Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry

Session Introduction

Michitaka Ohtaki
Kyushu University, Japan
Title: Nanostructure Engineering for High-performance Oxide Thermoelectric Materials

Biography: Prof. Michitaka Ohtaki has completed his PhD at The University of Tokyo, Japan, in 1990. He is a professor of inorganic materials chemistry in Kyushu University, Japan. He has published more than 100 peer-reviewed scientific papers and 22 books, and was invited to more than 50 international conferences to deliver keynote and invited lectures. He has been serving as an executive board member of the Thermoelectrics Society of Japan (TSJ), and as an associate editor of the Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan.

Abstract: Thermoelectric energy conversion has been becoming widely recognized to be particularly suitable for waste heat energy recuperation and energy harvesting, since it generates electricity directly from a heat flux penetrating a solid device consisting of n- and p-type semiconductors. The system contains neither any moving parts nor fluids, and hence is perfectly free from friction, vibration, and noise. Although thermoelectric (TE) power generation has been very successful due to its extremely high reliability in space and remote applications such as power sources for deep space probe missions, limitations in elemental abundance and thermal durability of the conventional TE materials have prevented a wide commercialization of the TE power generation. Metal oxides are an emerging new member in thermoelectricity because of their low environmental impact and superior durability at high temperature in air. In this paper, a new strategy for high-performance oxide TE materials will be depicted with focusing on the nanostructure engineering in the materials. Multinary-doped ZnO will be highlighted as an example to showcase how to overcome inherent disadvantages of oxide materials in thermoelectricity, high lattice thermal conductivity in particular, which had kept oxides away from consideration as a candidate until mid 90’s. Current issues of TE oxides will be discussed with a future prospect of the materials and applications.

Mirja Illikainen
University of Oulu, FINLAND
Title: Novel hybrid materials based on dissolution and decondensation of cellulose and aluminosilicate in alkaline conditions

Biography: Mirja Illikainen completed MSc in process engineering at the University of Oulu, Finland in 2002, followed by a PhD in 2008. After that, she has worked as a team leader in Inorganic materials and waste utilization research group. In 2015, Illikainen was appointed as a professor and research unit leader of Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit. Prof. Illikainen has focused her research on cellulose, inorganic binding materials and their combinations. She has received three awards and has published 48 scientific articles. She has co-supervised three doctoral theses and is currently supervising five doctoral theses.

Abstract: Hybrid materials are one of the most growing new materials classes, which find applications from various industrial areas, such optoelectronics, energy storage, and lightweight materials for transportation technologies. Hybrid materials combine inorganic and organic components on the molecular level. In this study, a new approach to fabricate hybrid materials is presented: in highly alkaline conditions, dissolved cellulose and aluminosilicates are joined on molecular level to form a hybrid geopolymer structure. Geopolymers are materials produced in alkaline conditions from solid aluminosilicate precursor. The produced geopolymer is solid material comparable to hardened Portland cement. The main application of the geopolymers is environmentally friendly concrete; it has been shown that geopolymers can be produced with 80 % lower CO2 emissions compared to traditional concrete. However, geopolymers are brittle in nature, having low fracture toughness. The aim of this work was to study how the mechanical properties of geopolymer materials can be modified by adding dissolved cellulose during the geopolymer reaction. Hybrid geopolymer materials were produced by using metakaolin as a geopolymer precursor and by adding different amounts of dissolved cellulose into the mixture. The produced hybrid materials were analyzed by measuring the mechanical properties. In addition, the mineralogy and microstructure of the material was characterized by XRD and FESEM, respectively. The results of the study show that addition of dissolved cellulose into geopolymer paste changes the material fracture behavior dramatically. The novel hybrid material can find applications from different industrial fields including construction, transportation and medical applications.

Orlova Albina
State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Title: Next Generation Ceramic Materials for Consolidation of radioactive alpha-wastes using the Innovative Technology Spark Plasma Sintering for their preparation

Biography: Professor Orlova Albina, doctor of natural sciences. Interests: crystalline materials as matrix for radwasteimmobilisationfor future isolation of dangerous isotopes from biosphere and other applications (optic, medical materials). AMember of the editorial board of the journal Radiochemistry, a member of Interdepartmental Council on Radiochemistry under the Presidium of the RAS and State Corporation ROSATOM, a member of the IAEA group of consultants on elaboration of IAEA Handbook "Processing of High Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Declared as Waste". More than 300 publications: papers, presentations at conferences.

Abstract: Crystalline ceramic materials are the perspective matrices for consolidation of radwaste, including alpha ones.Currently they are being developed in many countries andhave advantages over those based on the glasses. The choice of chemical forms of such materials is based on the principles of crystal chemistry and nature similarity. To improve their characteristics of stability and improve environmental safety, synthetic methods are chosen that ensure the formation of practically non-porous ceramics at small time. We investigate mineral-like compounds with structures fluorite, garnet, whitlokite, monazite, kosnarite, langbejnite, scheelite, characterized by a broad isomorphism of the atoms forming them, and SPS technology for sintering of ceramic on their base. The studied compounds (oxides, phosphates, tungstates) contain in their composition lanthanides, zirconium, barium which are chemical analogs of actinides U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm) and radium. The methodology for the synthesis of powders has been worked out. Powders are characterized by methods X-Ray, Differential thermal analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy. The structure refinement was carried out for some of them. Ceramics were sintered from the powder samples by the SPS method. It was established from the experiments that the formation of ceramics with high physic-mechanical characteristics took place (in comparison with the conventional sintering technique). As a result sintering temperatures were reduced by 300-500 degrees, duration reduced to 1-12 minutes.. The achieved values of the relative density were close to theoretical and amounted to 99.0-99.7%. Experiments on controlled change in porosity were performed, Experiments on the controlled change of porosity were carried out, which is necessary to establish the optimal conditions for effective removal of helium. Preliminary data are obtained on the study of the processes of helium flow and diffusion through ceramics with controlled porosity. This work has been performed with financial support of Grant RSF No 16-13-10464.

Mohammad Farooq Wani
National Institute of Technology Srinagar, India
Title: Tribological characterization of Ti-6Al-4V alloy / silicon nitride and alumina under high temperature dry sliding conditions

Biography: M F wani has expertise in field life cycle engineering design and Tribology / nanotribology of materialsand nanomaterials. Wani possess 35 years of teaching and research experience at UG, PG and PhD level. His concept of sustainability design of mechanical systems through innovative tribological applications is unique contribution in the development of sustainability design of mechanical systems. He has guided more than 50 theisis at PG level in the field of Tribology and life cycle and has already successfully guided 6 PhD thesis in the field of Tribology and LCD. Wani has published 50 research papers in international journals and more than 40 publications in internal conference proceedings.

Abstract: In aircraft, compressor blades are subjected to severe wear because of high contact temperature and pressure. Ti-6Al-4V is used as compressor blade for aircraft applications, however, its friction and wear properties have not been studied fully under high stress and high temperature conditions. Friction and wear behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V against Silicon nitride and Alumina have been studies under dry sliding conditions in temperature range of RT-400 oC, using ball-on-disc universal tribometer. For Ti-6Al-4V, highest coefficient of friction (μ) 0.76 and 0.71 against Silicon nitride and Alumina was obtained at 10 N, whereas minimum μ of 0.36 and 0.47 against Silicon nitride and Alumina was obtained at 20 N, these tests carried out at 400 o C. In the case of high temperature test, highest coefficient of friction (μ) 0.56 and 0.74 against Silicon nitride and Alumina was obtained at 400 oC, respectively. Whereas minimum μ of 0.44 and 0.38 against Silicon nitride and Alumina was obtained at RT, respectively. The wear volume of Ti-6Al-4V increases with increase in sliding distance from 200 m to 1000 m against Silicon nitride and alumina. For sliding distance test the wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V with Alumina is less than the Silicon nitride for entire range at 400 o C. μ decreases with the increase in load and μ increases with the increase in temperature. Higher wear rate of 58.69 x 10-6 mm3/Nxm was observed in the case of silicon nitride, as compared to alumina where as minimum wear rate of 22.57 x 10-6 mm3/Nxm was observed in the case of Ti-6Al-4V alloy when rubbed against alumina. Optical microscopy (OM), SEM, EDAX, and 3 D profilometery have been used to understand the friction and wear mechanism of tribopair. From the OM and SEM of wear track of alloy disc it has been observed that adhesive and abrasive wear mechanism are dominant wear mechanisms. EDX analysis of worn track depicted the transfer of Fe from Ti-6Al-4V alloy disc to silicon nitride and alumina ball.

Jadranka Blazevska Gilev
University St. Cyril and Methodius, Macedonia
Title: Laser ablation of conductive porous structures

Biography: J.Blazhevska Gilev - associated professor at the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University St.Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, R. Macedonia. Undergraduate courses taught: Chemistry of polymers; Mechanics of polymer materials; Degradation and Recycling of Polymers. Postgraduate courses taught: Polymer modification; Application of lasers in polymer chemistry. Fields of Specialization: laser ablation of polymers; modification of polymers and composites. Head of the laser laboratory (http://www.tmf.ukim.edu.mk/graphene) equipped with: Tunable pulsed TEA CO2 laser; AGS-X Universal testing machine; UV‐VIS Spectrophotometer; FTIR spectrophotometer. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract: Graphene is known to be a two-dimensional carbon with a one-atom-thick planar sheet of sp2 bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honey comb crystal lattice, regarded as the “thinnest material in the universe” with tremendous application potential. Recent studies have demonstrated intriguing attributes of graphene, including high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength comparable to carbon nanotubes, superior transport properties and very high sensitivity for gases, due to the extraordinary mobility of carriers. In our research work we are focused on designing of conductive porous structures composed of polymer foams with deposited graphene sheets for potential application as gas sensors. First, polymer latex with 50% solid content was synthesized by semi-continuous seeded emulsion polymerization reaction of the monomers butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate in weight ratio 50/50. Then, polymer porous monolithic structures with high surface area were manufactured using a simple and environmentally friendly procedure, by means of high shear processing of polymer latex. The obtained porous structures were used as substrate on which graphene was deposited using IR CO2 pulsed laser. This led to homogenous deposition of graphene through the pores and formation of conductive porous structures. The achieved composite products are then put through a series of quantitative and qualitative testing techniques such as UV/VIS spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR spectroscopy and the determination of the sample’s hydrophilic /hydrophobic properties by measuring the contact angle. Sensor properties of the above mentioned structures were investigated at two different temperatures using several modal compounds. Keywords: Polymer porous structures, graphene, IR CO2 pulsed laser, modal compounds

Jens Martin
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Title: Electrochemical CO2 Reduction in Real Time

Biography: Prof Jens Martin obtained his PhD in 1998 from the University of Tübingen, Germany. He then worked almost 3 years in the R&D department of Omicron Nanotechnology, Germany, before moving to Israel in 2001 to work at the Weizmann Institute, first as postdoc then as research associate. In 2007 he moved to the US and spent 3 years at Harvard University as a research associate and teaching fellow. In 2011 he became lecturer at the graphene center at the University of Exeter, UK, before joining the NUS graphene center in September 2012. His research interests include low dimensional electronic systems, electronic interactions, and most recently novel approaches in CO2-reduction.

Abstract: “Oxide-derived” coppers have been of considerable recent interest as electrocatalysts for the CO2 reduction reaction in aqueous electrolytes. The role of residual copper oxides in lowering the required overpotential and improving Faradaic efficiency to C-C coupled products has been a source of controversy. Here, we introduce the use of selected-ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), in concert with chronopotentiometry and in-situ Raman spectroscopy, to investigate the role of surface copper oxide during CO2 reduction. We use three different precursors for oxide-derived Cu: Cu2O-nanoneedles, Cu2O-nanocrystals, and Cu2O-nanoparticles. Via sensitive, real time measurements of the reaction products and in-situ Raman spectroscopy of the surface oxide phases, we show that CO2 reduction only begins when copper oxide is no longer present at the surface. Further, we show that pulse-mode technique modifies selectivity CO2 reduction products and the longevity of the catalyst. Pulsed-mode is therefore a viable strategy to bring electro-chemical CO2 reduction towards applications.

Len Foong Koong
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
Title: Kinetic modeling to describe multicomponent system adsorption on biopolymer chitosan


Abstract: Chitosan is the partially deacetylated form of chitin (2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose-(N-acetylglucosamine)). This biopolymer can be extracted from seafood waste, such as shrimp shells. The shells are decolorized, demineralized, deproteinated to give chitin, and then deacetylatedto finally produce chitosan. The amino and hydroxyl groups on the biopolymer are attractive towards heavy metals and dyes, making is a suitable adsorbent in wastewater treatment. In this work we examine the efficiency of chitosan in removing copper, nickel and zinc metal in a multicomponent adsorption system as wastewater often have a mixture of metals. In this work we aim to develop a kinetic model to describe the competitive adsorption nature of a multicomponent system using adsorption capacity predicted in equilibrium isotherms. Several multicomponent equilibrium isotherms are modelled on the experimental data which the best fit model is determined using error analysis. The adsorption capacities of competing metals are then fit into this kinetic model and compared to experimental data. The single equilibrium adsorption capacities for copper, nickel and zinc are: 2.2mmol/g, 1.25mmol/g and 1.0 mmol/g. The binary equilibrium adsorption capacities are different depending on the pairing of metals. In Cu-Ni, Cu-Zn and Ni-Zn system, the adsorption capacities are: 1.93mmol/g-<0.01mmol/g, 2.12mmol/g-0.18mmol/g and 0.91mmol/g-1.01mmol/g. The selectivity is determined by the stability of the complexes formed between the functional groups on the biopolymer which copper form the stronger complex, however zinc and nickel are attracted similarly to the functional group and therefore there is no distinct selectivity in the adsorption behavior. Batch kinetic is then carried out to be compared to the model.

Chaewon Bak
Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), South Korea
Title: Study on the Crystallinity of Laser Irradiated Titanium Oxide Thin Film

Biography: Chaewon Bak receiced her B.S. degree in Material Science and Engineering at Incheon National University, Republic of Korea, in 2017. She is currently a graduate student in department of Material Science and Engineering at Inha University, Republic of Korea. She is currently a researcher of Surface Technology R&D group at Korea Institute of Industrial Technology(KITECH). Her main research interests are nanostructured materials and surface treatment technology.

Abstract: Titanium oxide nanostructures have been studied for utilizing as environmental purification and biocompatible materials. [1,2] Especially, titanium oxide nanoparticles and their noble functions have been attracted a great deal of attention due to their high specific surface area and high reactivity. [3,4] However, centrifugation and rinsing of nanoparticles for recycling processes were inconvenient. Some studies on fabrication of rigid film by utilizing the nanoparticles were performed. [5,6] These studies are appropriate to utilize specific function of nanoparticles without loss or degradation problems during the recycling processes. In this study, noble fabrication method of titanium oxide thin films using nanoparticles was introduced. For this, two major processes were performed. First, sol-gel synthesis based on wet-based chemical reaction was performed. The ammonium hydroxide was added during sol-gel processing for formation of titania nanoparticles. After then, this sol-gel solution was coated on substrate by bar coating method. These physically attached titania nanoparticles consisting of thin film show little crystallinity, low robustness and weak adhesion properties to the substrate. Secondly, thermal annealing and laser irradiation processes were applied to titania sol-gel film. The crystallinity, robustness, and adhesion characteristics of titania films after thermal annealing and laser irradiation processes were enhanced. The crystallinities of titania thin films after each process were analyzed by SEM and XRD. These introduced robust titania thin films and its noble fabrication method could be utilized to inserted biomaterial applications because of proper biocompatibility and mechanical robustness. Also, this investigation of fabrication processing of thin film with titania nanoparticles can contribute to produce the various metal oxide nanoparticle based structures.

Tai Hong Yim
Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), South Korea
Title: The Low Temperature Grain Growth Behavior of Nanocrystalline Fe-52wt% Ni alloy

Biography: Tai Hong Yim receiced his Ph.D degrees in Metallurgical Engineering from Seoul National University, Republic of Korea, in 1987. He is currently a principal researcher of Surface Technology R&D group at Korea Institute of Industrial Technology(KITECH). His main research interests are design of alloy, fabrication of funtional metals, anisotrophy and texture of metals.

Abstract: Nanocrystalline Fe-52wt%Ni alloy was fabricated by electroforming process. Fe-52wt%Ni alloy was used for glass sealing material. We would like to develop this alloy for the flexible substrate of GIGS thin film solar cell because thermal expansion behavior of the alloy is similar to that of CIGS. Nano-crystalline Fe-52wt%Ni alloy was heat-treated to be used for thermally stable metallic parts. By heat-treatment the structure of this alloy was changed and alloy with thermally stable could be achieved. The alloy microstructure changed from nano-scale to sub-micrometer scale during heat-treatment between 350 and 375°C. This temperature range is near the one fourth of the alloy melting point.

Jaeho Shin
Seoul National University, South Korea
Title: Study on the Crystallinity of Laser Irradiated Titanium Oxide Thin Film

Biography: Jaeho Shin receiced his B.S. degrees in Physics from Seoul National University, Republic of Korea, in 2010. He is currently a graduate student in department of Mechanical Engineering at Seoul National University. His main research interests are laser thermal processing of transition metal oxide and its application toward the fabrication of sensor and energy devices.

Abstract: Titanium oxide nanostructures have been studied for utilizing as environmental purification and biocompatible materials. [1,2] Especially, titanium oxide nanoparticles and their noble functions have been attracted a great deal of attention due to their high specific surface area and high reactivity. [3,4] However, centrifugation and rinsing of nanoparticles for recycling processes were inconvenient. Some studies on fabrication of rigid film by utilizing the nanoparticles were performed. [5,6] These studies are appropriate to utilize specific function of nanoparticles without loss or degradation problems during the recycling processes. In this study, noble fabrication method of titanium oxide thin films using nanoparticles was introduced. For this, two major processes were performed. First, sol-gel synthesis based on wet-based chemical reaction was performed. The ammonium hydroxide was added during sol-gel processing for formation of titania nanoparticles. After then, this sol-gel solution was coated on substrate by bar coating method. These physically attached titania nanoparticles consisting of thin film show little crystallinity, low robustness and weak adhesion properties to the substrate. Secondly, thermal annealing and laser irradiation processes were applied to titania sol-gel film. The crystallinity, robustness, and adhesion characteristics of titania films after thermal annealing and laser irradiation processes were enhanced. The crystallinities of titania thin films after each process were analyzed by SEM and XRD. These introduced robust titania thin films and its noble fabrication method could be utilized to inserted biomaterial applications because of proper biocompatibility and mechanical robustness. Also, this investigation of fabrication processing of thin film with titania nanoparticles can contribute to produce the various metal oxide nanoparticle based structures.

Mohammad Farooq Wani
National Institute of Technology Srinagar, India
Title: Friction and wear characterization of piston ring/cylinder liner bench tests under nanolubrication

Biography: M F wani has expertise in field life cycle engineering design and Tribology / nanotribology of materialsand nanomaterials. Wani possess 35 years of teaching and research experience at UG, PG and PhD level. His concept of sustainability design of mechanical systems through innovative tribological applications is unique contribution in the development of sustainability design of mechanical systems. He has guided more than 50 theisis at PG level in the field of Tribology and life cycle and has already successfully guided 6 PhD thesis in the field of Tribology and LCD. Wani has published 50 research papers in international journals and more than 40 publications in internal conference proceedings.

Abstract: This tribological study presents a synergetic approach of nanolubrication to explore the lubrication characteristics of Piston Ring/Cylinder Liner Tribo-contact. Influence of nanolubrication on friction Friction and wear characteristrcs ; as such to evaluate a rational solution for wear and frictional reduction, subsequently achieving enhanced service life, emission control and reduction in fuel consumption. The piston rings segments that was used in this research/ work study were from an actual heavy duty top ring (inside beveled) (cat No: Lo7 SSPR) for a nominal cylinder bore of 9.4 cm) as per the contact compatibility, each ring was sectioned into nearly 13 pieces. This particular ring has a 190 micro meter of plasma sprayed, chromium coating on a stainless steel substrate. The ring segment was inserted in a holder which consists of a portion of the ring groove for the mating piston. This assembly will be in turn run by a reciprocating arm of the tribometer. In order to overcome the issues of alignment a sphere enveloped in a sphere contact mechanism is adopted for the cylinder liner. The cylinder liner used is an ISO R185220 grade grey cast iron with typical standard composition and properties (Mechanical & Thermal) given in Annexure A. Each liner was initially cut into a 25.4 x 50.8 section, but this would have accounted account for large scale material wastage. Hence 12.18 mm x 50 mm sections were used instead. The surface of the cylinder liner is plateau honed with diamond hones with a honing angle of 45°.This honing operation behaves as a lubricant reservoir during engine working. . During all the machining and specimen operations, the actual surfaces of both the mating surfaces were preserved to retain their original surface roughness and pattern. The conspicuous pattern of graphite flakes can be seen on the liner samples while as a surface with dimples can be seen for the chromium coating on ring substrate (Figure 1). A photograph of the samples to be mounted ensuring their conformal geometry can be seen in figure 2. The disc samples were mounted on the stationary table of the test rig equipped with heating element and piezoelectric sensors while as the ring section was fitted into a compatible ring holder fastened against a reciprocating arm ensuring a proper conformal contact. The lubricant samples were formulated with PAO10 lubricant base oil with 1 mass % of Nano-sized tungsten disulphide and 1 volume % Nano-Diamond. Nano-tungsten disulphide with nominal size of 90 nm and Nano-Diamond with nominal size of 30 nm were obtained from Nanoshell USA. The lubricant formulations were tested at 20°C, 40°C, 100°C and engine working temperature of ≈250°C reciprocated under a load of 30N with reciprocating frequency of 10Hz. The frictional coefficient was continuously monitored throughout the tests with a conformal cylinder inscribed cylinder Hertzian contact in reciprocating action and resulting wear loss was measured using a digital balalcne accurate to 10 μgm. A State approaching super-lubricity and ultralow friction was achieved by achieved by sliding Grey C.I (Plateau Honed) cylinder liner against thermal sprayed chrome coated Stainless Steel top compression ring with Polyalphaoleifin (PAO10) base oil ultrasonically dispersed with 1 mass% of Nano-Diamond & 1 mass% of Titanium oxide SEM, EDX and Raman spectroscopy of samples was performed to understand the friction and wear mechanism of samples under dry and nanolubrication conditions.

Hyeonjin Eom
Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), South Korea
Title: The Impact of Thermal Annealing on the Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Electroformed Ni52Fe48 Alloy film

Biography: Hyeonjin Eom receiced her Ph.D degree in Mechanical Engineering from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Republic of Korea, in 2014. She is currently a senior researcher of Surface Technology R&D group at Korea Institute of Industrial Technology(KITECH). Her main research interests are funtional nanomaterials and flexible devices and their fabrications.

Abstract: Recently, reducing the thickness of metal substrate of energy devices was required as solar cell devices were highly integrated. The NiFe alloys have been studied due to their low thermal expansion for preventing both electrical and mechanical broken at conductor-semiconductor interfaces of devices.[1] The electrical and thermal conductivity of NiFe alloys substrate also should be considered because physical characteristics of micro and nanocrystalline of metal thin film were unpredictable. According to the Wiedemann-Fraz(W-F) law, the thermal conductivity to the electrical conductivity of a metal is proportional to the temperature. [2] However, some studies on conductive behavior of micro and nano-sized metal crystalline show that these conductivities are not predictable by using the Wiedemann-Franz Law. [3-5] Therefore, crystallinity of metal film becomes the most effective factor in determining the electrical and thermal properties by reducing the thickness of metal substrate. In here, W-F relation for annealed Ni52Fe48 films was studied. For this, the electrical and thermal conductivity of Ni52Fe48 film annealed under different temperature was investigated. Free standing Ni52Fe48 film was obtained by electroforming processes. The microstructures of annealed Ni52Fe48 films were characterized by SEM and XRD analysis. The electrical and thermal conductivity were measured by 4-probe-station and thermal conductivity measuring system, respectively. Studies on the electrical and thermal behavior of Ni52Fe48 film can contribute to predict the thermal problems that may occur in the integrated circuit and help to design the large area heat-sensitive device.

El Sayed M. Osman
Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Title: The Prewetting transition in Liquid Gallium-Lead mixture


Abstract: We report semi-analytical equation of state (EOS) for Ga-Pb alloy, which based on the first order perturbation theory of fluid mixtures andwe suggested a suitable non-additive pair potential between Ga-Pb unlike pairs. We employed the present EOS to calculate the Ga-Pb immiscibility gap region in the phase diagram. We obtained analytical expression for the alloy surface tension from the concentration fluctuation structure factor Scc(0). We calculated the surface tension along the bimodal curve and at extreme conditions of temperatures and concentrations. The new expressionof surface tension could exhibit reasonably well the prewetting transition of Pb atoms at the surface of Ga-rich liquid alloy and could also explain,qualitatively, the prewetting phenomena occurring in the Ga-rich side of the phase diagram. Our prediction of the prewtting line and the wetting temperature, Tw, agree with the empirical measurements.

Agne Lage
Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania
Title: Relation between fabric properties and straight fit virtual dress base patterns

Biography: PhD student Agne Lage is currently second year student in the Materials Engineering Department of Kaunas University of Technology (KTU), Lithuania. She received her MSc degree in Fashion Engineering from KTU in 2015 and BEng degree in Clothing Design and Engineering in 2013. Her research focuses on 3D apparel comfortability. Specific research interest centers on materials mechanical properties influence on comfortability using spatial virtualization methods. Her fields of research are human body data visualization, garment 3D CAD, clothing comfort. She already have published 1 scientific article in the journal with impact factor and 8 papers in conferences material.

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Recently, the virtual garment fitting has gotten considerable attention for researchers. A 3D garment model that involves suitable ease allowances can be easily deformed for different sizes. This garment reflects real garment form that is necessary for 3D pattern-making. Differences in fabric properties that can produce differences in garment fit require the implementation of additional variables and base pattern should be changed [1]. The distribution of distance ease along all garments is not equal, therefore ease allowance is necessary to regulate at bust, waist and hip areas [2-3] where almost half of the respondents have garment fit problems [4]. The aim of this research was to investigate the interaction between fabrics mechanical properties and garment basic patterns by determining distance ease between body and garment at three main girths. EXPERIMENTAL PART: In this research virtual women mannequin of standard size was covered with straight fit virtual dress stitched in Modaris 3D Fit (CAD Lectra) software. Seven cotton/cotton blended plain weave fabrics were used in investigations which mechanical properties were defined by KES-F (Kawabata). Ease allowance L (cm) value at bust, waist and hip girths in 2D basic patterns was changed uniformly from 0 cm to 8 cm (step of 1 cm). The values of distance ease in 3D virtual garment at the three main girths were investigated. In this research fabrics were dived into two groups: first group – fabrics without elastane and second group – fabrics with elastane. It was obtained that the position and length of measure lines in basic construction at bust, waist and hip girths does not match the position and length of corresponding lines in 2D patterns after virtual try-on due to fabrics deformation which is related to mechanical properties. Bust measure lines with all L values for first group of fabrics were too low while using second group bust line was at right place if ease allowance L > 4 cm. Hip measure line moved up when ease allowance value L increased. This tendency was obtained for both fabric groups, but raising value was different because of fabric tensile strain. 3D ease at waist girth was difficult to analyse using first group of fabrics because it was related to distance ease at hip girth.

Veera Brahmam
Advanced Systems Laboratory, India
Title: Gas Chromatography: A Novel and New Technique for On-line Cure Monitoring Studies of Carbon-Phenolic Composite Structures


Abstract: We report the use of gas chromatography technique for on-line cure monitoring of the carbon-phenolic(C-P) composites to identify the gelation region for pressure application to enhance the thermal performance. Experimental trials are made on the laminates prepared by hand lay-up process in autoclave. During curing process methylol-phenol (M-phenol) and water are evolved as reaction by-products and the concentrations of the evolved byproducts are monitored by on-line gas chromatograph connected to autoclave facility. Experimental parameters like sample injection method, sample volume and time of injection have been optimized and m-phenol and water evolution concentrations are monitored as a function of component temperature. M-phenol evolution is more consistent compared to water evolution and therefore based on the falling trend of the methylol phenol concentration a broad region of gelation for pressure application is identified. The region thus identified is further narrowed down based on the diminishing trend of the M-phenol concentration and the experimental analysis of the laminates focusing on resin content and void content. Finally the on-line pressure application criterion was established based on the resin content and void content data. Based on the resin content and the low void content the performance of the C-P structure is evaluated. Key words: Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC), Gas chromatography, Cure monitoring.

Minsu Lee
Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), South Korea
Title: The Low Temperature Grain Growth Behavior of Nanocrystalline Fe-52wt% Ni alloy

Biography: Minsu Lee receiced his M.Sc. degree in Material Science and Engineering at Hanyang University, Republic of Korea, in 2012, respectively. He is currently a researcher of Surface Technology R&D group at Korea Institute of Industrial Technology(KITECH). His main research interests are electroforming process and electorplating simulation.

Abstract: Nanocrystalline Fe-52wt%Ni alloy was fabricated by electroforming process. Fe-52wt%Ni alloy was used for glass sealing material. We would like to develop this alloy for the flexible substrate of GIGS thin film solar cell because thermal expansion behavior of the alloy is similar to that of CIGS. Nano-crystalline Fe-52wt%Ni alloy was heat-treated to be used for thermally stable metallic parts. By heat-treatment the structure of this alloy was changed and alloy with thermally stable could be achieved. The alloy microstructure changed from nano-scale to sub-micrometer scale during heat-treatment between 350 and 375°C. This temperature range is near the one fourth of the alloy melting point.

Holon Institute of Technology, Israel
Title: Effect of chemical interaction during friction on nanohardness of FCC metals

Biography: Professor Rapoport is the Head of the Center for Materials Engineering and the Laboratory of Tribology at the Holon Institute of Technology. Friction and wear properties of fullerene-like nanoparticles were studied at first in the laboratory of Prof. Rapoport. Last some years he studied the interaction between structure friction and wear. Prof. Rapoport is a principal investigator in several research grants sponsored by the Israel Ministry of Science, the Bi-national Israel-USA and Germany-Israel Funds. Prof.. Rapoport is the author more than 100 publications. He is Vice-President of the Tribology Council in Israel.

Abstract: Plastic déformation of surface loyers is accompanied by strong gradient of grain sizes, dislocation density affecting therefore the mechanical properties of friction surfaces. The effect of gradient of plasticity in surface layers leading to variation of nanohardness has been termed the indentation size effect (ISE). Friction of rubbed surfaces is accompanied by chemical interaction in thin surface layers. Chemical interaction with oxygen or carbon during friction can affect the dislocation density influence on the ISE and thus to a varying dependence of the hardness on the depth of penetration. Therefore, one of the goals of this work was to analyze the chemical composition with depth and correlate it with nanohardness of thin surface layers. All friction tests were conducted under ambient laboratory conditions using a pin-on-disk rig. In order to avoid the effect of impurities on plastic deformation, grain size and hardness, pure polycrystalline FCC metals Ag , Cu, Ni and Al were chosen as the materials for pins. The load was increased stepwise until the Boundary Lubrication (BL) region is obtained. Nanoindentations were performed on a Keysight Technologies Nanoindenter (XP indenter head), using a Berkovich diamond tip. For depth profiling a Kratos Argon Gas Ion Source (Ar+ GS) integrated into Kratos AXIS ULTRA system was applied. A variation of the chemical composition in thin surface layers (1.5-2 m) after friction in the BL region of Ag, Cu, Ni and Al was analyzed. Nanohardness in thin surface layers (1.2 m) of Ag, Cu, Ni and Al before and after friction in the BL region was studied. A strong gradient of the hardness at thin surface layers of Al after friction is mainly associated with oxidation and carbonization. A correlation between micro and nanohardness of thin surface layers after friction in the BL region is observed.

Ram Pratap Yadav
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, India


Abstract: The polycrystalline 100 nm thin BaF2 films were deposited on the crystalline Si <1 1 1> substrates at room temperature using electron beam evaporation technique under a vacuum of ∼10−6 mbar. The films were irradiated with 120 MeV Ag9+ ions at different ion fluence in the range of 1×1011- 3×1013 ions/cm2. The surface morphology of the pristine and SHI irradiated films is characterized by the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fractal analysis on AFM images were performed using heightheight correlation and autocorrelation functions to extract out roughness exponent, lateral correlation length and interface width. The computed results show that the surface roughness decreases ( from 6.11 to 5.34 nm) with increase in ion fluence, while the fractal dimension increases (from 2.11 to 2.24) initially followed by a decrease with ion fluence. The results show that the surface properties are greatly affected by the ion irradiation. Further, the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) based on the partition function approach is performed on the AFM images of the pristine and irradiated thin films. It is found that the partition function exhibits the power law behaviour with the segment size. Moreover, it is also seen that the scaling exponents vary nonlinearly with the moment, thereby exhibiting the multifractal nature. The multifractal spectrum width and the strength of the multifractality are also obtained. The statistical tests are performed to establish the significance of the obtained multifractality of the thin films.

Arash Bahrololoomi
Shiraz University, Iran
Title: Deterioration of Electroplating Bath and Inhibition of Deposit Growth with the Current Density used for Deposition of Nanocrystalline Iron

Biography: Arash Bahrololoomi, M.Sc. student in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Mr. Bahrololoomi received his B .Sc. degree from Islamic Azad university, Shiraz, Iran in 2014. He is interested in electrodeposition of metal and alloy coatings.

Abstract: Nanocrystalline iron coatings were electrodeposited at six different current densities, from 1 to 25 A.dm-2 from a bath containing iron (II) sulphate at 60 oC and the influence of current density on the bath deterioration was investigated. The bath was clear emerald green before electrolysis. However, it turned into a turbid yellow solution with some orange precipitates after electrodeposition at four different current densities, i.e. 1, 5, 10 and 15 A.dm-2. Further electrodeposition at 20 and 25 A.dm-2 changed the bath colour to dark brown. UV-Visible spectra were recorded to verify these colour changes that are indicative of bath deterioration which in turn prevents the coating growth. The growth rate increased for the samples electrodeposited at current densities up to 15 A.dm-2. Further increase in the current density retarded the growth rate. The coatings obtained at 15 A.dm-2 and higher current densities show the growth of a black oxide layer on the samples. This is seen profoundly for the sample deposited at 25 A.dm-2. The black oxide, grown on the sample surface, reduces electrical conductivity and prevents further growth of the metallic coating. Appearance of the samples changed with increase of the current density from bright metallic, for the coatings obtained at low current densities, to mat, black, rough and non-metallic for the coatings obtained at current densities higher than 10 A.dm-2. Surface morphology of the samples investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that the structure was uniform pyramidal for the samples electrodeposited up to 10 A.dm-2. From 15 up to 25 A.dm-2, rough cauliflower morphologies were observed which were grown on the uniform pyramidal metallic structure. X- ray diffraction (XRD) analysis illustrated that the coatings electrodeposited at 25 A.dm-2 were covered with nanocrystalline iron oxides with 127 nm grain size. Bearing in mind that nanocrystalline metallic iron coatings are expected to be electrodeposited at high current densities, the sample deposited at 25 A.dm-2 was analysed by XRD. This analysis proved that the coating had a substantial amount of iron oxides which lead to the bath deterioration. Keywords: Electrodeposition, Nanocrystalline Iron, Bath Deterioration

Francisco Javier Toledo Marante
University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Title: Polyaldol, a new yellow-orange coloured biovarnish

Biography: Francisco Javier Toledo Marante obtained his BSc degree in 1979 from the University of La Laguna (Spain) in Chemical Sciences with an Outstanding Graduate Award. In 1983 he recieved his PhD degree in Organic Chemistry. In 1986 he won a position as Professor of the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain).

Abstract: Introduction: The manufacture of varnish involves the dispersion of a colored oil or pigment in a vehicle, usually an oil or resin, followed by the addition of an organic solvent for viscosity adjustment [1]. Most of oils and resins available in the market are products derived from petroleum or from any other non-renewable resource, and strange chemical products are added as colorants. So, it can be deduced that varnish industry is far removed from sustainability. Therefore, the research group on Chemical Technology and Sustainable Development from the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain) decided to develop a method in order to produce a renewable varnish using culturable organisms as raw material. Methods: To do this, bioethanol is produced by means of any known method, by microbial fermentation of sugar broth [2]. After distillation, bioethanol is transformed into acetaldehyde by the partial oxidation over a silver catalyst [3]. Then, acetaldeyde is transformed into polyaldol (I) and, finally, into the varnish. Results: The fabrication method of the varnish started with shaking a mix consisting on acetaldehyde and an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite at least for 75 minutes, at 10ºC, in this way obtaining the aldol. Next, aldol obtained in last step was subjected to shaking for at least 12 hours at room temperature, producing a viscous coloured oil, the polyaldol (I). The coloured oil obtained in last step was dissolved and diluted in acetone, in this way obtaining the final yellow-orange varnish. Discussion: A new product –a biobarnish- for the bio-based economy and sustainable development has been invented. This method is protected within Spanish territory by the patent Procedimiento para la fabricación de un barniz amarillo-naranja y producto obtenido [4].

Nelcy Della Santina Mohallem
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais –UFMG, Brazil
Title: Synthesis and Characterization of Nb2O5/SiO2 Xerogels for Adsorption and Degradation of Contaminants

Biography: Nelcy Della Santina Mohallem is Ph.D. in Applied Physics and author of about 90 scientific publications. She is Full Professor of physical-chemistry and material science in the Universidade Federal of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Chemistry Department, since 1992. She supervised directly 14 Ph.D. students and 7 master degree students. Currently she is supervising 1 P.D, 3 Ph.D., and 2 master degrees. She has large experience in coordination of several academic projects in the nanoscience and nanotechnology area, including projects in collaboration with several Brazilian companies.

Abstract: The growth in the field of porous nanocomposite materials prepared by non-conventional processes has stimulated the search of new applications of these materials whose performance dictates multiple properties and applications as adsorbents, sensors and photocatalysts. These properties depend on their porosity, specific surface area, structure and morphology. In this work we studied the structural, textural and morphological characteristics of nanocomposites of niobium oxide dispersed in silica matrix, prepared by sol-gel process. SiO2 matrices were obtained from the mixture of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), ethyl alcohol, water and nitric acid used as catalyst. Nb2O5/SiO2 nanocomposites were obtained by adding 5 and 10wt% of niobium oxide in the matrix solution in the form of oxalate. The precursor solutions were stirred for one hour and left to rest for gelation. The gels were submitted to aging at 600C for 24 hours, dried at 1100C for 12 hours, leading to the formation of xerogels, which were thermally treated between 300 and 1100oC for 2 hours. SiO2 matrix exhibited non-crystalline behavior. The Nb2O5/SiO2 xerogel exhibited non-crystalline behavior when treated up to 300°C and Nb2O5 crystalline particles were formed above this temperature. The textural characteristics of the silica matrix changed substantially with thermal treatment and the nanocomposite maintained its high specific surface area until 9000C, when there was a sharp decrease of these values due to the collapse of the pores. The nanocomposites were used in adsorption and in photocatalytic degradation tests with good results for nanocomposites samples heated at 700 and 900°C.

Ercan Yilmaz
Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey
Title: Frequency dependent electrical characterizations of Yttrium Oxide Thin Films

Biography: Ercan Yilmaz was born in Malatya, Turkey, in 1972. He received the B.S. degree in physics from Inonu University, Malatya, in 1995, the M.Sc. degree from Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey, in 1998, and the Ph.D. degree from Middle East Technical University, Ankara, in 2003. He is currently a Professor with the Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.

Abstract: The frequency dependent of electrical characterizations of Y2O3 MOS capacitors were studied. The Y2O3 thin films were deposited on P-type silicon (Si-100) wafer by RF magnetron sputtering and the electrical characterizations and structural properties were investigated. The structures were analyzed by the XRD and the SEM measurements, and the electrical characterizations were investigated by Capacitance-Voltage measurements for various frequencies from 50 KHz to 1 MHz. The outcomes of the study have shown that the Capacitance-Voltage characteristics of the Y2O3 are sensitive to voltages and frequencies changes. Due to interface state between the semiconductor and the oxide (Si/Y2O3) Capacitance-Voltage variation decreases with the increasing frequency. The Conductance-voltage characteristics of the device were observed to be different for high and low frequencies. The changes in Conductance-Voltage in the low frequencies regions decrease with increasing frequencies, and in high frequencies increase with increasing frequencies. The Capacitance-Voltage and the conductance-voltage studies show that series resistance (RS) and interface state (NS) are the significant factors that can affect the electrical properties of the capacitors. KEYWORDS:Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3), Capacitance, Conductance, XRD, SEM and Voltage.

Hafiz Zahid Shafi
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM),Saudi Arabia
Title: Surface Modification of Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membranes with Zwitterionic Coatings: A Novel Approach to Control Biofouling

Biography: Hafiz Zahid Shafi, is currently Assistant Professor/Research Engineer-III at the Center of Research Excellence in Desalination, Research Institute of KFUPM, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. He got his B.E. in Metallurgy and Materials Engineer from U.E.T, Lahore, Pakistan, M.S. in Materials Engineering from PIEAS, Pakistan, and Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from KFUPM University, Saudi Arabia. He is the author of more than 10 highly-ranked journal publications and several conference publications. He is also a member of the editorial board of an international journal, Water and Desalination Research Journal (WDRJ). His current research interests include: Nanomaterial (thin films) preparation and characterization, surface modification by thin film deposition, surface modification of membranes (UF, NF and RO) and performance evaluation, membranes-fouling mitigation and control via surface modification, membranes-based desalination processes and concentrate management technologies. Dr. Shafi got KFUPM-DSR research grants (DISC1601 and IP161-COED-309) in 2016 and 2017 for developing water disinfection technology and fouling resistant ultrfiltration (UF) membranes.

Abstract: Commercial reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are prone to (bio)fouling that results in flux decline, reduced efficiency, more energy demand and increased chemical cleaning schedule of an RO plant. All of these factors result in loss of production and quality of final product (which is clean water), and the reported enormous economic loss ranges in millions of dollars for bigger RO plants. Thus, enhancing the fouling resistance of RO membranes is an active area of research worldwide. Of the several methods available to combat fouling, surface modification of RO membranes by initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD) is an attractive process owing to its higher conformability, solvent less & substrate-independent nature. In this study, we report the synthesis of ultrathin antifouling copolymer films of 4-Vinylpyridine-co-Ethylne glycol diacrylate p(4-VP-co-EGDA), and simultaneous deposition onto the surface of RO membranes by iCVD technique. Parametric studies were performed to optimize the chemistry of copolymer (p(4VP-co-EGDA)) films. As-deposited copolymer films were converted to zwitterions by a gas-phase quaternization reaction with the vapours of quaternizing agent, 1,3-propanesultone. FTIR and high-resolution XPS spectra revealed the successful conversion of tertiary nitrogen (the reactant) to quaternary nitrogen (pyridinium ion: the product of the reaction) in the functionalized copolymer films. Fouling propensity of the copolymer films with respect to two model foulants, BSA and sodium alginate was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring. Functionalized films showed considerably lower foulant adsorption, indicating that zwitterionic films exhibit excellent antifouling properties when compared to bare sensors. Static bacterial adhesion test revealed that the modified RO membranes show significantly reduced adhesion (~98% less) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus bacterial cells as compared to bare RO membranes. Laboratory-scale cross flow permeation tests revealed that permeate flux of the modified membranes declined slightly, however, salt rejection was almost unaltered when compared to bare membranes.

Dunarea de Jos University of Galati (UDJG), Romania
Title: Anodic oxide thin film formation to improve the resistance of titanium alloys to combined degradation of corrosion and wear


Abstract: Tribocorrosion is defined as degradation of materials subjected to combined action of a mechanical processes and a corrosive environment. Materials degradation due to the mechanical loading may occur under a variety of interactions between surfaces that are in abrasion, fretting, sliding, rolling or erosion contacts. The synergy resulting from combined action of corrosion and wear can provoke a larger material loss than expected, if testing the two degradation processes separately. This synergy effect can be split into parts of increased mechanical wear due to corrosion or an increase of corrosion due to mechanical wear. Tribocorrosion finds applications in almost all areas: automotive (lubricated moving parts or parts subject to tribo-oxidation), biomedical (interaction of biomedical chemicals on implants, evaluation of degradation of arch-wire, dental implants), Chemical, Mining and Petrochemical (degradation of pumps, valves, propellers, heat exchanger tubes, drilling and slurry transportation), food (tribocorrosion of food processing equipment), marine (tribocorrosion in sea water), lubricant (research and development of novel lubricants). Tribocorrosion research aims to address the need to select, design or development of new surfaces for future equipments and devices, safe and efficient products as well as minimize the operating costs and extend the life of existing machinery and medical devices, to increase the safety, performance or energy efficiency. The present research work deals with electrochemical formation of a thin oxide film on titanium alloys in order to improve the surface properties in contact with biological fluids. Resistance to corrosion and tribocorrosion is presented comparatively with the untreated titanium alloy surfaces.

Fakiha El-TaibHeakal
Cairo University, Egypt
Title: Stability performance of different anodic alumina (AAO) films in aqueous sulfate solutions


Abstract: Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) is a well-known template in different fields of nanotechnology, due to its potential applications in a widespread industrial sector. Therefore, electrochemical performance of different fabricated AAO films was thoroughly investigated in both molar sulfuric acid and aqueous sulfate solutions relative to the behavior of their bare aluminium substrate. The prepared samples included one-step anodized film (1st), first anodized electrolytic polished film (EP), self-organized two-step anodized film (2nd) and electrodeposited copper atoms in the pores of the 2nd anodized film (colored). Surface characterization and electrochemical results revealed that properties and stability of the four fabricated samples are strictly influenced by the method adopted in their preparation. In both tested media, electrolytic polished sample (EP) offered the highest stability and corrosion protection for its Al substrate. Generally, the performance decreased in the following order: EP > 1st > 2nd > colored > bare Al. Interestingly, for each tested sample our data revealed a better behavior in H2SO4 than in Na2SO4 solution, since alumina film is more predisposed to dissolution in solution with higher pH values. Keywords:AAO; Colored film; Anodization; AFM; FE-SEM; EIS; Stability.

Alberto Ruiz
Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Mexico
Title: Nondestructive evaluation using ACPD measurements to detect corrosion susceptibility of 2507 super duplex stainless steel

Biography: Alberto Ruiz is currently a faculty member at the Institute of Metallurgical Research of Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo in Morelia, Mexico. He is engaged in scientific research on nonlinear ultrasonic and electromagnetic materials characterization.

Abstract: Due to their excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, duplex stainless steels are gaining the attention for different applications in oil, nuclear, gas and chemical industries. These mproved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance owed to a duplex microstructure composed of a balanced mount of ferrite and austenite. An investigation of the capabilities of Alternating Current Potential Drop to detect the effect of long term 475 °C embrittlement on the mechanical properties 2507 super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) is conducted. SEM microestructural analysis using SEM revealed that the thermal aging did not affect the volumetric proportions of the phases present in the duplex microstructure. Nevertheless, results obtained from ACPD measurements showed an increase in electric conductivity of samples with prolonged exposure to 475 °C. In addition, the hardness of the samples increased significantly for long holding times, resulting in an embrittlement of the SDSS corroborated by Charpy impact energy measurements. The experimental data indicates that the measurement technique can be used for the detection and possibly for quantitative evaluation of the 475 °C

Yuki Shimo
Ritsumeikan University, Japan
Title: Study on Quantity Control of Calcium Ion separated from Concrete Member

Biography: Master course student of Ritsumeikan University. I am studing about concrete engineering.

Abstract: When concrete specimen keep in outside, fluids have held on the concrete as the calcium hydroxide solution by effect of environmental conditions. Some calcium hydroxide is melted from cement in the fluids. If the calcium hydroxide solution reacts with carbon dioxide, calcium carbonate has been produced. It's insolubility and adhere on concrete as the white deposits. It does not impact to mechanical properties but affect to the appearance. It is called as efflorescence. This study aimed to restrain to melt the calcium hydroxide. Three types of the specimen were prepared. As two types for the water shielding, a set accelerating agent and a surface impregnating agent were used. Normal type as without the water shielding is also prepared. Waterproof treatment was conducted at surrounding of the top surface of the concrete. Then, water poured at the area until 2cm from the top surface of the concrete. The water was picked in 1 and 2 days, and conducted ICP(inductively coupled plasma) spectrometry.     From the results, quantity of the calcium ions of the water shielding cases was lower than that of the poured water. However, in the results after 2 days, the quantity of the calcium ions was almost same in all cases. In the results at the both case of the set accelerating agent and the surface impregnating agent, quantity of the calcium ions was controlled than without the water shielding. Thus, it indicated that the set accelerating agent and the surface impregnating agent are effective to prevent the melt of the calcium hydroxide which is separated from concrete member.

Pablo Benitez
University of Aveiro, Portugal

Biography: Pablo Benítez was born in the city of Encarnación, Paraguay, in February 1990. In 2013, he finished his studies at the Department of Civil Engineering of the National University of Itapúa. In the same year, he presented an investigation at the “V Encuentro Latinoamericano de Gestión Economía en la Construcción (ELAGEC)” which took place in Mexico. In 2015, he began his doctoral degree at the University of Aveiro, in Portugal. In October 2016, he contributed as a researcher to the “XII Congresso Internacional sobre Patologia e Reabilitação de Estruturas (CINPAR)” held in Porto, Portugal. Currently, he is developing a research project about the optimal maintenance planning of concrete structures subject to carbonation-induced corrosion.

Abstract: In the last decades, climate change has become a major problem for scientists around the world which has concerned many scientists around the world. Global warming is a long-term process caused by phenomena such as increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the atmosphere, increases of rainfall, changes in relative humidity and changes in temperature. Thus, this will aggravate the degradation process leading to the decrease of durability, safety and serviceability of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Regarding the durability of concrete structures, carbonation-induced corrosion is definitely an important and costly source of degradation, which is directly related to climatic parameters such as CO2, temperature and relative humidity. In Paraguay, the lack of control during the construction of buildings often leads to weak structures highly vulnerable to the attack of harmful external agents. Therefore, this paper seeks to provide a theoretical review of mathematical models developed for the analysis of the durability of reinforced concrete structures subject to this anomaly. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports, climatic parameters will increase in the future. For this reason, an analysis of the decreasing performance of these structures caused by climate change will be addressed in this paper. The aim of this research is to choose the most accurate mathematical model that can be applied in Paraguay for the prediction of the service life of concrete structures subjected to carbonation-induced corrosion. For that purpose, parameters and variables of the selected model will be defined and validated based on previous country case studies. This paper provides a first attempt to develop an optimal maintenance planning of buildings, which is highly necessary in Paraguay.

Ramón Pamies
Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Spain
Title: Viscoelastic behavior of Carbon Nanotubes-Ionic Liquids dispersions with potential lubricating applications

Biography: Ramón Pamies is lecturer at the department of Materials Engineering and Manufacturing in the Technical University of Cartagena (Spain) with previous experience in the Polymer Groups of University of Murcia (Spain) and University of Oslo (Norway). Currently, his research is focused in the fields of Rheology of Advanced Lubricants using Carbon Nanophases to improve the tribological performance of ionic liquids in the group of Material Science and Metallurgy.

Abstract: The rheological characterization of ionic liquids has awaken a strong interest in the scientific community since this is one of the principal features to be taken into account for tribological applications [1]. In a Newtonian flow, shear stress is proportional to shear rate and the viscous behavior is not affected by shear rate. In the case of fluids with certain degree of phase ordering, the non-Newtonian phenomenon is typically prevalent. Shear thinning of ILs has been reported previously in the literature because of the existence of liquid phase aggregates or networks [1,2]. This non-Newtonian behavior has been ascribed to molecular layering in the case of imidazolium-based ILs [3,4]. The usage of carbon nanosystems as modifiers of the behavior of ionic liquids has increased these last years, leading to a number of relevant studies. The development of large numbers of new ILs with many different technological applications and their ability to disperse the different carbon structures are among their main advantages [5]. In this work, we present the rheological characterization of dispersions of carbon nanotubes in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide. We have evaluated the effect of addition of single- walled carbon nanotubes and different types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under shear rate at several temperatures.

Miquel Solà
Universitat de Girona, Spain
Title: The Reactivity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: [2+2] and [4+2] Cycloadditions and the Pauson-Khand Reaction

Biography: He obtained his PhD at the UAB in 1991 with academic honours. In 1993 he moved to the University of Girona (UdG) as assistant researcher. In 1994 he did postdoctoral research in Amsterdam with Prof. Baerends and in 1995 in Calgary with Prof. Ziegler. In 2001, he got the Distinction for the Promotion of University Research. Since 2003, he holds a permanent position as full professor in the UdG. He got the ICREA Academia Prize in 2009 and 2014 and the Physical Chemistry prize awarded by the Spanish Royal Society of Chemistry in 2013. He is coauthor of 325 scientific papers and has supervised 15 doctoral Theses.

Abstract: Addition of benzyne to carbon nanostructures can proceed via [4+2] (1,4-addition) or [2+2] (1,2-addition) cycloadditions. In this work, we analyze by means of density functional theory calculations the reaction mechanisms for the [4+2] and [2+2] cycloadditions of benzyne to nanostructures of different curvature, namely, C60 and a series of zig-zag single-walled carbon nanotubes. Our DFT calculations reveal that, except for the concerted [4+2] cycloaddition of benzyne to zig-zag single-walled carbon nanotubes, all cycloadditions studied are stepwise processes with the initial formation of a biradical singly-bonded intermediate. From this intermediate, the rotation of the benzyne moiety determines the course of the reaction. The Gibbs energy profiles lead to the following conclusions: (i) for C60, the [2+2] benzyne cycloaddition is the most favored reaction pathway; (ii) for zig-zag single-walled carbon nanotubes, the [4+2] benzyne cycloaddition is preferred over the [2+2] reaction pathway; and (iii) there is a gradual decrease in the exothermicity of the reaction and an increase of energy barriers as the diameter of the nanostructure of carbon is increased [1]. In the second part of the lecture, we will discuss the regioselectivity of the Pauson-Khand reaction in armchair and zig-zag nanotubes of different curvatures [2].

Tae Gyu Kim
Pusan National University, South Korea
Title: Mass Production of High Quality Boron-doped Diamond Shortfilm by Surface Wave Plasma CVD


Abstract: Boron doped diamond (BDD) film is an excellent electrode material that functions as an anode for water waste treatment systemsbecause of its excellent mechanical properties, wide potential window, low background currents and electrochemical stability.In industrial mass production, it’s highly desirableto develop a large areaBBD film through low temperature synthesis. Generally, BDD electrodesreported in previous research were synthesized by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition(MPCVD). However, the BDD electrode deposited by MPCVD has some difficulties in mass production due to the high temperature process (>600℃) and small deposition area(<50mm diameter). In this study, we have successfully designed a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition(MPCVD) system into a surface wave plasma (SWPCVD) system by synthesizing BDD films on a Si wafer (Ø150mm) with various working pressures from 250 to 800 mtorr.The average grain size of diamond particle is 20 nm. The surface morphology of the samples were observed by FE-SEM(Hitachi S-4700) and the structural-chemical properties of synthesized diamond layer was investigated by Raman Spectroscopy (Renishaw System 2000). Resistivity and Hall mobility was determined by a Hall-effect measurement.

Tomoya Masuhira
Ritsumeikan University, Japan
Title: Mechanical Properties of PVA Fiber Reinforced Porous Concrete

Biography: Master course student of Ritsumeikan University. I am studying about concrete engineering.

Abstract: Porous concrete has a lot of continuous voids, so has high water permeability. Recently, porous concrete has been expected to be an important social infrastructure material not only environmental aspect but also disaster prevention. Because the porous concrete has a lot of voids, the strength is lower than that of normal concrete. In this study, the water permeability and the mechanical properties of the porous concrete reinforced with PVA fibers were evaluated. Tests of the water permeability, compression and flexural were conducted. Ratio of the fiber containing were set as 0, 0.5 and 1.0%. The design porosity of the porous concrete was set as 20 and 30%. The length of PVA fibers is set to 15mm. From the results of all cases, the water permeability coefficient was equivalent to that of the small gravel. Regarding to the strength in the cases of porous concrete with PVA fiber, the effectiveness of the PVA fiber was not distinctively indicated at the among of the compressive strength, the elastic modulus and bending strength. However, if the length of fibers is set to 30mm in the same mixture proportion, it confirmed that the toughness has been twice than the case of the 15mm. Therefore, it confirmed that the high water permeability and the mechanical properties could maintain even if contain the PVA fibers in the porous concrete. In addition, the toughness could be reinforced at the case that the PVA fiber is set to 1.0% containing ratio and 30mm length .

M. Masudul Hassan
National University, Bangladesh
Title: Advancement of Natural Fiber /Biopolymer Composite: Challenges and Target

Biography: Dr. M. Masudul Hassan is a Professor in the Department of Chemistry, National University, M C College, Sylhet, Bangladesh. He received his Ph.D. in 2003 in Chemistry from Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh. He worked as George Forster Research Fellow of AvH (Post doc, 2006-2007, 2010, 2013, 2016) with Polymer Engineering/Polymer Physics group at the Institute of Material Science and Technology, TU-Berlin, Germany. Dr. Hassan has authored and co-authored 100 refereed publications including 40 Journal Papers and 60 Conferences Papers, two books, and three book chapters. He is a reviewer of journal papers for more than 10 international journals. Dr. Hassan has been a member of several professional societies including Bangladesh Chemical Society and Bangladesh Association for the Advancement of science. His research interest is in the field of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites and biopolymers.

Abstract: Composite manufacturing industries have to look for plant based natural fibre (NF) reinforcements, such as flax, hemp, jute, sisal, kenaf, banana and biopolymer (BP) as an alternative material which is going to replace solid wood and the materials for many applications, such as automobiles, aerospace, packaging and building industries, where a high load carrying capacity is not required. Natural Fiber/Biopolymer (NF/BP) has the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The greatest challenge in working with natural fiber reinforced plastic composites is their large variation in properties and characteristics. This presentation deals with the recent development of NF/BP based reinforced composites (NF/BPRCs) illustrating the main paths and results of research that provide a quick overview with no pretence of exhaustiveness over the vast topic. Keywords: Natural Fiber, Biopolymer, Biocomposite

Kun Yang
Florida State University, USA
Title: Interplay of Topology and Geometry in Fractional Quantum Hall Liquids


Abstract: Fractional Quantum Hall Liquids (FQHL) are the ultimate strongly correlated electron systems, and the birth place of topological phase of matter. Early theoretical work has emphasized the universal or topological aspects of quantum Hall physics. More recently it has become increasingly clear that there is very interesting bulk dynamics in FQHL, associated with an internal geometrical degree of freedom, or metric. The appropriate quantum theory of this internal dynamics is thus expected to take the form of a “quantum gravity”, whose elementary excitations are spin-2 gravitons. After briefly reviewing the topological aspect of FQHL, I will discuss in this talk how to couple and probe the presence of this internal geometrical degree of freedom experimentally in the static limit [1], and detect the graviton excitation in a spectroscopic measurement [2]. Comparison will be made with recent experimental [3] and numerical [4] work.

Peng Zhou
Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Title: Application of the Phase-Field Variational Approach to Analyze the Thermoelectric Effects

Biography: Peng Zhou is an associate professor at the department of astronautic sciences and mechanics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.R. China. He obtained his BS and MS from the department of materials science and engineering, Tsinghua University, P.R. China. In 2007, he received his PhD in engineering physic from the University of Virginia, USA and then worked at the department of Mathematics, University of California, Irvine, as a visiting assistant professor till he joined HIT. Currently, his main research interests are phase transformations within solder joints under the influence of electromigration and elastic stresses, and analysis on the mechanism of electromigration and other coupling processes.

Abstract: The variational approach used in phase-field models is a very popular tool to construct governing equations which guarantee the satisfaction of the second law of thermodynamics. Here, this approach is applied to analyze thermoelectric effects. To begin with, for both thermal and electrical conductions, cross dependences are introduced to their entropy density functions. That is, they are written as and . Then, using the total entropy functional, the thermal and electrical fluxes can be determined with the phase field variational approach (PFVA). Within the expressions for fluxes, important coefficients such as the Seebeck coefficient can be found with straightforward physical contents. For metals, the Seebeck coefficient is found to be proportional to . When treating electrons as Fermi gas, this expression can be shown to qualitatively agree with the result given by the Mott formula. Further analysis show the Seeback effect arises from the differences in the kinetic energies of electrons in metals. For semiconductors, the Seebeck coefficients are also found to be close to those given by the Mott formula. However, in this case, currents arise from the difference in the number densities of electrical carriers in the conduction bands. Thus, in semiconductors, the Seebeck coefficients are found to associate with the electrical field rather than with the temperature gradient. Traditional analysis using the Boltzmann's integro-differential equation was performed at the microscopic level. On contrast, here the analysis using PFVA is directly performed at the macroscopic level and thus is more straightforward. An advantage of the analysis using PFVA is that it helps to determine the rate of conversion of energy at each instant moment and thus, the total amount of energy converted can be obtained via numerical integration w.r.t. time. But note that, this analysis uses a preliminary definition of the entropy density function of the electrical conduction, i.e., . Thus, improvements can be made by explicitly finding this entropy function at the macroscopic level to yield even more helpful results for practical purposes.

Sadriten Tleukenov
L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan
Title: Indicatrices of the wave vectors of elastic and electromagnetic waves in piezomagnetic medium of rhombic symmetry

Biography: The scientific activity of S. Tleukenov started at the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. S. Tleukenov in 1995 became a doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, in 1997 he was awarded the title of professor of physics. He has published more than 100 scientific papers, some of which are translated and published in English in journals in the USA, India and Germany (Springler). 4 monographs were published: "Seismic waves in an inhomogeneous medium" (1985), "A study of electromagnetic fields in anisotropic media" (2001), "Method of matricant" (2004), "The solution of certain problems in physics by method of matricant" (2011). Professor Tleukenov works at L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University.

Abstract: In this paper we analytically derive indicatrices of elastic and electromagnetic waves propagating along the coordinate planes in unlimited piezomagnetic medium, taking into account the mutual transformation. We considered anisotropic piezomagnetic medium of orthorhombic symmetry: 222, 2mm, mmm. On the basis of the method of matricant [1] indicatrices equation is obtained as: (1) (2) where: (3) If we consider that the velocity of elastic waves is much less than the speed of electromagnetic waves: (4) then, from (1) follow the approximate formulas for indicatrices of elastic and electromagnetic waves in accordance with their mutual transformation. For electromagnetic waves is obtained: (5) For elastic: (6) On the basis of (5) and (6) were determined the directions of the group velocity vectors (normal to curve of indicatrices). In the absence of piezomagnetic effect from (5) and (6) follow the equations of ellipses for elastic and electromagnetic waves in an anisotropic medium.

Zdeněk Kožíšek
Institute of Physics CAS, Czech Republic
Title: Homogeneous nucleation kinetics of polymorphic phases in solution

Biography: Dr. Zdeněk Kožíšek received his PhD in Physics in 1986. He is the Vice Head of the Department of Optical Materials at the Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague and the Chairman of the Czechoslovak Association for Crystal growth from 2012. Research activities are focused on the condensed matter theory, modeling of formation of a new stable phase from the supersaturated vapor, solution or supercooled melt by homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation process; kinetics of nucleation in confined systems and on active centers.

Abstract: Crystallization in solution often occurs via formation of different crystalline polymorphs [1, 2], which has different crystalline structures and consequently different physical properties (solubility, melting point, density, crystal habit, hardness, optical properties, etc.). Crystallization conditions (supersaturation, temperature, solvent etc.) are crucial for control of final product. The aim of this work is focused on modelling of polymorph formation kinetics to better understand crystallization process. In our model, which includes nucleation, growth, and Ostwald ripening, the number density of nuclei of polymorphic phases is determined by numerical solution of kinetic equations [2]. As a model system the L-glutamic acid (LGlu), which exhibits two monotropic polymorphs: α LGlu and β Lglu, was considered. The decrease of supersaturation during phase transition, due to the formation of polymorphic phases, was taken into account, i. e. the total number of molecules within the system (liquid or crystalline phase) was kept constant in contrast to the classical nucleation theory when supersaturation does not change. For the sake of simplicity, only homogeneous nucleation at constant temperature was considered. Basic characteristics of crystallization process (the size distribution of both polymorphs, nucleation rate, crystallization fractions) were determined as a function of time. The critical sizes of nuclei of both phases increase with time as supersaturation decreases. Consequently, supercritical nuclei become undercritical and have a tendency to dissolve. The number of subcritical clusters decreases, i. e. nucleation rate (number of nuclei formed in unit volume per unit time) reaches negative values. Under certain operating conditions, this behavior induces complete disappearance of the stable polymorph and only crystals of the metastable phase subsist. This is in coincidence with Ostwald rule of stages which states that only the metastable polymorph nucleates. Numerical results reflect well known experimental data at temperatures T=5, 20, and 40 oC [2] [3]. This work was supported by the Grant no. LD15004 (VES 15 COST CZ) from the Ministry of education of the Czech Republic and the COST Action CM1402.

Diana Sabitova
L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University,Kazakhstan
Title: Indicatrices of the wave vectors of elastic and electromagnetic waves in piezomagnetic medium of rhombic symmetry

Biography: Diana studied at Sh.Ualikhanov Kokshetau State University and has a Bachelor degree in Computer Science and Finance. In 2007 she graduated from University and was invited by University Administration to build a work-group to introduce and support data base for the university. In 2012 she got the Master degree at the Kokshetau State University and her master thesis, based on the research related with ‘Technological Approaches to the Development of the Intellectual Training System’. At the end of 2012 Diana got the President’s international scholarship ‘Bolashak’. So in 2013 she have been studying at Brunel University, London, UK, where she gained the experience in the field of Management of Higher Education and Theory and Methods of Education. Diana worked within the Computer Science, as an administrator and coordinator of Automated Information System for 8 years. Since 2015 Diana is a PhD student at L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University.

Abstract: In this paper we analytically derive indicatrices of elastic and electromagnetic waves propagating along the coordinate planes in unlimited piezomagnetic medium, taking into account the mutual transformation. We considered anisotropic piezomagnetic medium of orthorhombic symmetry: 222, 2mm, mmm. On the basis of the method of matricant [1] indicatrices equation is obtained as: (1) (2) where: (3) If we consider that the velocity of elastic waves is much less than the speed of electromagnetic waves: (4) then, from (1) follow the approximate formulas for indicatrices of elastic and electromagnetic waves in accordance with their mutual transformation. For electromagnetic waves is obtained: (5) For elastic: (6) On the basis of (5) and (6) were determined the directions of the group velocity vectors (normal to curve of indicatrices). In the absence of piezomagnetic effect from (5) and (6) follow the equations of ellipses for elastic and electromagnetic waves in an anisotropic medium.

Seungbeom Choi
SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), South Korea
Title: Solution Processed Fluoropolymer Passivation for Suppressing the Back-channel Effect in Metal Oxide TFT

Biography: Seungbeom Choi received the B.S degrees in school of materials science and engineering from sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea, in 2014. In 2014, he joined SKKU advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) from sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea, where he is joint M.S. & Ph.D. degree course.

Abstract: Metal oxide thin film transistors (TFT) have received much attention lately owing to their high electrical performance and versatility for flexible devices. However, the oxide semiconductors are sensitive to gaseous molecules such as oxygen and water molecules, which can cause a deterioration in the electrical properties by back-channel effect. Therefore, a passivation layer has been widely adopted to suppress such deterioration. In this study, three types of device structures are compared: unpassivated, PMMA passivated and Fluoropolymer-passivated oxide TFTs. Threshold voltage shift was observed after positive bias stress in ambient condition, which is important factor in active matrix display. Also, the water stability was analyzed for skin-patchable and implantable electronics.

Jaeyoung Kim
SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), South Korea
Title: Solution-processed AlOx gate dielectrics for metal-oxide thin-film transistors

Biography: Jaeyoung Kim received the B.S degrees in school of materials science and engineering from sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea, in 2015. In 2015, he joined SKKU advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) from sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea, where he is joint M.S. & Ph.D. degree course.

Abstract: Solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been widely studied owing to an increasing demand for large area and low-cost fabrication of flexible electronics. Moreover, in flexible electronics, low-voltage operation of metal-oxide TFTs is highly desired to minimize the power consumption of the electronic devices. To solve these issues, we focused on the fabrication of ultrathin and high-k solution-processed oxide gate dielectrics. Particularly, we demonstrate high-k gate dielectrics based on aluminum oxide doped with lanthanum or yttrium. Here, the dielectric characteristics such as current density vs. electric field, capacitance-frequency were analyzed. Also, we fabricated indium-gallium-zinc-oxide TFTs using these gate dielectric layers.

Federico Pinna
Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Title: Project of very thin targets operating under extreme conditions in NUMEN experiment


Abstract: In the field of the Nuclear Physics, the interest for some rare reactions lead to use targets with special characteristics, as in the case of the experiment NUMEN, at LNS (Catania, Italy). This experiment, which aims to study the Double Charge Exchange reactions (DCE) as complementary information in the Neutrino-less Double Beta Decay [1,2], requires five different nuclides as targets (116Sn, 116Cd, 130Te, 76Ge, 76Se), with very homogeneous density. Moreover, the thickness of the target must be of the order of few hundreds of nanometers, in order to avoid an excessive loss and straggling of the reaction products’ energy with consequent worsening of the momentum resolution. Finally, the expected small value of the DCE cross section, together with the small thickness, demands intense ion beams for getting high statistics in data taking. The design of these targets must provide the best choice of the technique to build thin, cylindrically shaped and homogeneous targets of such materials in combination with a suitable cooling system in vacuum. The preliminary calculations showed that thin, self-sustained layers of the above nuclides cannot dissipate, toward the border, the heat generated by tiny intense beams of 18O and 20Ne. Since the generated DCE ions need a complete strip of the electrons by a layer, usually Mylar, downstream the target, the solution has been found as a deposition of the nuclide on a pyrolytic graphite sheet. The suitable thickness of the graphite sheet for stripping is around 10 micrometers. Thanks to the high thermal conductivity of graphite, heat can be quickly transferred from the target to the sheet and, through the sheet, to the cooled target holder. A MatLab-code has been implemented to calculate the time evolution of the temperature inside the target. The results demonstrated that the graphite-nuclide double layer is successful. Figure 1 shows the spatial distribution (along radius and axial depth) of the temperature in 116Sn after few milliseconds. Measurements of the distribution using LASER light are planned in the next future and the agreement with the calculation will be presented. Concerning the deposition techniques, the first trial was made by thermal evaporation of Sn and Te on cold graphite substrate. The degree of adhesion is good for both nuclides, but FESEM microscopy shows largely inhomogeneous grain structures, which worsen the precision of the ion energy measurement. The deposited films were therefore annealed at different temperatures to increase the smoothness and homogeneity, but still the results were unsatisfactory. Far better results were achieved by evaporating Sn on hot graphite substrates. A further improvement is expected after annealing. Several tests at different temperatures of evaporation and annealing are planned in the next future, whose results will be presented.

Akihiro Tanaka
Ritsumeikan University, Japan
Title: Study on Damage Assessment for Laminated Rubber Bearings using AE Method

Biography: Master course student of Ritsumeikan University

Abstract: Recently, the problems of deterioration in the laminated rubber bearings has become obvious. The study on damage assessment for the laminated rubber bearings has been a few. In order to prevent a fracture by an earthquake, adequate damage assessment is urgent problem. In this research, the acoustic emission (AE) method which is one of the non-destructive testing methods was used for damage assessment of the laminated rubber bearings. This study observed AE activities by laboratory tests toward on-site measurement. Verification of the method was conducted by laboratory tests. The AE activities and their parameters of the damaged bearings were compared with new bearings. The results showed that the internal damage of the rubber bearings could be estimated through the activities of the AE parameters. Many AE hits and large AE were observed from the damaged rubber bearings through the laboratory tests, however, few AE activities were observed from new bearings.

Dongchoul Kim
Sogang University, South Korea
Title: Interface driven spontaneous formation of microstructures

Biography: Dongchoul Kim is a professor at the Sogang University in Seoul, Korea. He received his PhD from University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and joined the faculty of the Department of Mechanical Engineering in Sogang University in 2007. He was a visiting researcher at the University of California, Berkeley from 2014 to 2015. His scientific interests include multi-scale simulation, multi-physics simulation, self-assembly of nano/microstructures, especially modeling with phase field model. He has collaborated with several industrial labs in Samsung electronics, LG electronics, and Hyundai motors in the area of material science including metamaterials, shape-memory polymer, carbon-reinforced polymer, and Li-ion battery. He is author and co-author of over 50 papers on peer-reviewed journal and patents. He is serving as editorial board member of several scientific journals.

Abstract: Growth of a metal on a wide variety of nanoparticles enables the production of novel nanoparticles with superior physical and chemical properties. For example, the surface microstructure of catalysts can be altered, which significantly improves their activity, selectivity, and long-term stability. In addition, more than two functionalities, such as optical and magnetic or optical and chemical properties, can be integrated into a single particle, which has wide-reaching implications for biomedical applications ranging from diagnostics to the treatment of diseases. Until recently, such growth reaction has been performed either on two-dimensional substrates by using nanosphere lithography, or in a solution. Many factors such as nanoparticle’s geometry and surface property, and the experimental conditions were roughly estimated to have an influence on the final morphology which dictates the optical properties of the resulting nanoparticle. However, owing to an absence of design criteria that aid in the rational synthesis of the grown nanoparticles with desired sizes and shapes, most methods for this purpose rely on a trial-and-error approach, which is rather time-consuming and difficult to reproduce. Here we report a quantitative analysis of the equilibrium morphology of nanoparticle. To predict the equilibrium morphology, computational model was developed by considering the diffusion, surface energy, the interface energy between components, and other related mechanisms.

Wooju Lee
Sogang University, South Korea
Title: Multi-scale Simulation with Phase Field Crystal Model for Hyper-branched Nanoparticles

Biography: Wooju Lee received his B.S.E. and M.S.E. degrees in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Sogang University in 2013 and 2015, respectively. He is currently a doctoral student in the same university under the advisement of Prof. Dongchoul Kim. His main areas of research interest are phase field modelling of multi-scale system that include the wide range of length and time scales.

Abstract: Over the several decades phase field model (PFM) has shown its efficiency for simulating the evolution of nano or micro scale structures. But there is a limit in describing the fine structure under the tens of nano scale or atomic scale systems. Atomic simulations including molecular dynamics (MD) simulation have been used to predict the phenomena under the tens of nano scale systems. However, the time scale of atomic simulations is around femtosecond (10-15 second) that is too small to simulate the phenomena in real-time scale. Recently, a phase field crystal (PFC) method was introduced, which describes the evolution of the atomic density of a system with dissipative dynamics driven by free energy minimization [1]. Thus, with the PFC model, the evolution of nano or micro scale structures can be simulated on the atomic length scale and diffusive time scale (10-12 second). Here, we simulate the growth of hyper-branched nanoparticles at the oil-water interface. The hyper-branched nanoparticles possess novel physical, chemical, and optical properties, which will greatly expand the utility of gold nanoparticles in a wide variety of applications. The growth kinetic at the oil-water interface is a diffusion-controlled process that yields the primary morphological features of dendritic growth. The simulation results show the growth of branches from the core and the generation of nanogaps between branches. The interesting optical properties of the hyper-branched nanoparticles are also investigated with Finite Difference Time Domain method.

Yuma Kawasaki
Ritsumeikan University, Japan
Title: Porosity Estimation of Porous Concrete by RI Method

Biography: Associate professor of Ritsumeikan University. He is working for the area of concrete engineering and non-destructive inspection engineering.

Abstract: Porous concrete is known as one of the eco-materials. It is superior to ordinary concrete in both water retention and the permeability because it has a lot of either a lot of continuous or independent voids. However, the study of the porosity estimation after construction of the porous concrete have not been reported. In the porous concrete structures, to estimate the porosity is the most important because the water permeability could be changed if some garbage such as sand, dust are clogged in the voids. In this study, the Radioisotope method which can be inspected by non-destructive and micro-destruction was used. The size of porous concrete specimen was 600×h200 mm, and the target voids were set on four levels of 15, 20, 25 and 30%. Then, it compared the core strength from the specimens and the estimated strength from calculated porosity by RI method. At the porosity of 25 and 30%, it was found that a few errors between the core strength and the estimated strength from the relationship the strength ratio and porosity. It was confirmed that it is possible to calculate the porosity using RI instruments in both fresh and hardened. In addition, if the source depth is deep, there was no difference between freshness and RI calculated porosity after curing.

Abdeen Mustafa Omer
Energy Research Institute (ERI)

Biography: Abdeen Mustafa Omer (BSc, MSc, PhD) is an Associate Researcher at Energy Research Institute (ERI). He obtained both his PhD degree in the Built Environment and Master of Philosophy degree in Renewable Energy Technologies from the University of Nottingham. He is qualified Mechanical Engineer with a proven track record within the water industry and renewable energy technologies. He has been graduated from University of El Menoufia, Egypt, BSc in Mechanical Engineering. His previous experience involved being a member of the research team at the National Council for Research/Energy Research Institute in Sudan and working director of research and development for National Water Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Sudan. He has been listed in the book WHO’S WHO in the World 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. He has published over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 200 review articles, 7 books and 150 chapters in books.

Abstract: Over the years, all parts of a commercial refrigerator, such as the compressor, heat exchangers, refrigerant, and packaging, have been improved considerably due to the extensive research and development efforts carried out by academia and industry. However, the achieved and anticipated improvement in conventional refrigeration technology are incremental since this technology is already nearing its fundamentals limit of energy efficiency is described is ‘magnetic refrigeration’ which is an evolving cooling technology. The word ‘green’ designates more than a colour. It is a way of life, one that is becoming more and more common throughout the world. An interesting topic on ‘sustainable technologies for a greener world’ details about what each technology is and how it achieves green goals. Recently, conventional chillers using absorption technology consume energy for hot water generator but absorption chillers carry no energy saving. With the aim of providing a single point solution for this dual purpose application, a product is launched but can provide simultaneous chilling and heating using its vapour absorption technology with 40% saving in heating energy. Using energy efficiency and managing customer energy use has become an integral and valuable exercise. The reason for this is green technology helps to sustain life on earth. This not only applies to humans but to plants, animals and the rest of the ecosystem. Energy prices and consumption will always be on an upward trajectory. In fact, energy costs have steadily risen over last decade and are expected to carry on doing so as consumption grows. Refrigerants such as hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFCs) are present in the ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems and can pose a threat to the environment through being toxic, flammable or having a high global warming potential. Keywords: Absorption cycles, environment, heat pumps, refrigeration cycles, thermodynamic

Meng Xu
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China
Title: Kinetic and modelling study on copper removal from wastewater by waste PCB derived material


Abstract: Nowadays, a short life expectancy of electronic devices results in the fast-pace of new electronic device releases in the consumer electronics industry. Informal processing of the discarded electronic devices in some parts of the developing countries can lead to adverse human health effects and severe environmental pollution. One of the major challenges is to recycle the printed circuit boards (PCBs), an environmentally friendly way to recycle the valuable metals such as gold, platinum, copper and aluminum from PCBs is to use corona electrostatic separation process. This process separates the PCBs to metallic fractions and nonmetallic fractions. The metallic fraction is mainly copper with small amount of precious metals while the nonmetallic fractions (NMF) which accounts for 70% of the total weight are usually considered as useless by-product. In this project, NMF are further recycled and modified to a value-added material to treat copper-contaminated wastewater. Equilibrium isotherm results show the activated material can effectively remove copper ions from effluent with capacity of 3.0 mmol/g. Furthermore, batch kinetic studies have been carried out to evaluate the adsorption system. Initial metal solution concentrations, initial pH and initial dosage effect are investigated. The pseudo-first, pseudo-second and Elovich models are applied and compared to determine the best-fit model. The pseudo-second order is found to be the best-fit model in this system.

Ohmyoung Kwon
Korea University, South Korea
Title: Derivation of analytic relation between phonon mean free path spectrum and ballistic thermal resistance using ballistic-diffusive equation

Biography: Prof. Ohmyoung Kwon received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in mechanical engineering from Seoul Nation University, Seoul, Korea, in 1990 and 1992, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from University of California, Berkeley, in 2000. He joined Korea University in 2003. Prof. Kwon`s research focuses on the development of quantitative nanoscale temperature, thermal property, and thermoelectric imaging methods and tools such as Null-Point Scanning Thermal Microscope (NP SThM) and Scanning Seebeck Microscope (SSM) and their applications to the characterization of nano-electronic and –photonic devices and materials such as SOI transistors, LEDs, nano-wires, nano-films, and graphene.

Abstract: As the characteristic length of nano-material or device, such as the thickness of thin film, the grain size of material, and the size of nano-electronic device approaches or even becomes less than the mean free paths (MFPs) of phonons, the thermal resistance increases significantly than the one predicted with bulk thermal conductivity [1]. This classical size effect of phonon can not only cause serious problems like the hot spot in nanoelectronic devices but also provide opportunities like the enhancement of ZT of thermoelectric materials through nano-structuring [2]. However, recent works indicate that MFPs of phonons relevant to thermal conductivity vary by more than 5 orders of magnitude [3]. This means that the full spectral distribution of phonon MFPs should be used to predict or even make use of the classical size effect, relaxing the grey medium assumption that has traditionally been used. Therefore, phonon MFP spectroscopy, which analyzes phonon MFP spectrum, has become crucial to further advance the thermal modelling of nanoelectronic devices and enhance ZT of thermoelectric material by nano-structuring. However, a general formulation that allows rebuilding of phonon MFP spectrum from thermal measurement data has never been systematically derived from the fundamental transport laws. Though an integral equation based on effective thermal conductivity has been “given” [4], a general approach to obtain the essential suppression function has never been “derived”. Here, we derive a general formula that allows the reconstruction of the MFP spectrum from ballistic thermal resistance measurements using ballistic-diffusive equation (BDE) with a newly developed boundary condition [5]. We first demonstrate the accuracy of BDE with the new boundary condition by comparing the effective thermal conductivity felt by the nanoparticle imbedded in an infinite medium derived by BDE with the exact result obtained by Boltzmann transport equation [6]. Then, under the grey medium assumption, for both the nanoparticle and the nano-line imbedded in an infinite medium, we derive the analytic relation between the ballistic resistance and the size parameter. Finally, relaxing the grey medium assumption, we derive the integral equation relating the ballistic resistance and the phonon MFP spectrum of the medium. This result provides a general rigorous theoretical framework for the phonon MFP spectroscopy that allows the rebuilding of the phonon MFP spectrum from the thermal resistance data measured by either time-domain thermoreflectance method or scanning thermal microscope [7].

University Mohamed V- Faculty of Sciences Agdal, Morocco


Abstract: Nowadays, the chemical compounds such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, veterinary, drugs, cosmetics, dyes… have been extensively used and their amount has been increased drastically. Owing to their potential persistence, toxicity, carcino geniticity, their presence in the various environment compartments such as soils, atmosphere and surface waters have raised increasing concerns and interest. Therefore, their environmental fate, namely their degradation processes, transfer and the elucidation of the transformation metabolites are of great interest. A large number of studies are available regarding their degradation, fate and behavior in different compartments such as water, soil and food with the aim to reduce their potential negative effect. Moreover, it has been found that some of the pesticides are highly persistent and their complete elimination is difficult to achieve using many of the existing water treatment facilities. Currently Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a process that is growing rapidly in environmental engineering and for removing organic pollutants such as pesticides from water . In this present work, we are interested in the degradation of chloridazon, herbicide family pyridazinones that present high water solubility by heterogeneous photocatalysis by the use of titanium dioxide TiO2 under excitation at 365 nm. The main objective is to optimize the conditions for total degradation or mineralization of the solution in order to decontaminate the water. The aim of this work Was to for Assessment of impact parameters on photodegradation of chloridazon. TiO2 P25 degussa Was used as catalyst and photodegradation Occurred in aqueous solution under excitation at 365nm. The effect of different TiO2 concentrations, the herbicide concentration and irradiation time were Investigated. the analyzes were performed by (HPLC). Similarly, it has been shown that the ions Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, CO32- has an effect on the photocatalytic degradation on the basis of the results, we concluded that this pollutant Disappears completely after 20 minutes of irradiation. The structure elucidation was obtained by using HPLC/ESI/MS and HPLC/ESI/MS2 techniques in positive mode and through the complete study of the various fragmentation pathways. Keywords : Chloridazon – degradation – Heterogeneous photocatalysis – TiO2

Jaroslav Mosnáček
Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia
Title: Polymeric materials from Tulipalin A

Biography: Jaroslav Mosnáček DSc. received Ph.D. degree in 2002 in macromolecular chemistry at Polymer Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia. Since 2017 he is Principal Research Scientist at the same institute. Current research interest is focused on studies of controlled/living polymerization techniques, new functional well defined polymers and polymers from renewable monomers, surface modification of nanoparticles and preparation of hybrids for various applications as well as stabilization and photochemical modification of polymers. He is an author and co-author of 2 US patent applications, 2 book chapters and 65 SCI publications cited almost 650 times.

Abstract: Polymers derived from nature were synthesized as a promising material with superabsorbent properties. α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL), also known as Tulipalin A, can be isolated from tulips. Synthesis of polymers derived from MBL has already been successfully realized by free radical polymerizations [1], reversible-deactivation radical polymerizations [2], group transfer polymerization [3] as well as ring opening copolymerization. Here the synthesis and properties of new superabsorbent hydrogels prepared from hydrolyzed MBL – 4-hydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate (SHMB) will be presented. Copolymerization of SHMB with acrylamide (AM) at various ratios in the presence of crosslinker yielded hydrogels with superior degree of swelling and comfortable handling [4]. The effect of chemical composition (AM : SHMB ratio), the concentration of monomers in water and amounts of crosslinker were investigated. Hydrogels showed equilibrium degree of swelling in the range of 13,000 – 82,000%. Swelling capacity significantly increased with increased amount of SHMB. The viscoelastic characteristics of the hydrogels were significantly influenced by both the monomers ratio and crosslinker content. MBL was used also as a monomer for the preparation of particles via heterogeneous polymerization process. The results are presented for the surfactant as well as surfactant-free polymerization of MBL with ionic, water soluble initiator. The effect of batch and semi-batch polymerization procedure on molar masses and size of resulted particles were investigated. According to experimental conditions nearly monodisperse polymer particles of 0.15 to 0.65 µm were produced. Acknowledgements: Authors thank for financial support to European Regional Development Fund through project POLYFRIEND, project no. HUSK 1101/1.2.1/0209, to project SAS-MOST JRP 2014-9 and to APVV grant agency through grant no. APVV-15-0545.

Jun-ichi Kadokawa
Kagoshima University, Japan
Title: Preparation of cellulose- and chitin-based functional materials using ionic liquids

Biography: Jun-ichi Kadokawa received his Ph.D. in 1992. He then joined Yamagata University as a Research Associate. From 1996 to 1997, he worked as a visiting scientist at the Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research in Germany. In 1999, he became an Associate Professor at Yamagata University and moved to Tohoku University in 2002. He was appointed as a Professor of Kagoshima University in 2004. His research interests focus on polysaccharide materials. He received the Award for Encouragement of Research in Polymer Science (1997) and the Cellulose Society of Japan Award (2009). He has published more than 190 papers in academic journals.

Abstract: Natural polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, are abundantly distributed in nature, and thus, very important biomass resources. They act as structurally materials in nature because of their high crystallinity and stiff molecular chain packing. Accordingly, they often show lack of solubility in water and common organic solvents, leading to difficulty in functionalization and processability. Over the past decade, ionic liquids, which are molten salts with melting points below the boiling point of water, have been identified as powerful solvents for such crystalline polysaccharides. For example, it was reported in 2002 that an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) dissolved cellulose [1]. On the other hand, the author found the dissolution of chitin in an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimizazolium bromide (AMIMBr) [2]. In the following studies, the author also reported that cellulose and chitin ion gels were facilely formed from the solutions with the ionic liquids, BMIMCl and AMIMBr, respectively [2,3]. This presentation reports the preparation of cellulose- and chitin-based functional materials through such gelation processes with the ionic liquids. A dispersion of self-assembled chitin nanofibers was obtained by the regeneration from the chitin ion gel with AMIMBr using methanol, followed by sonication [4]. When the dispersion was subjected to filtration, the regenerated chitin formed a nanofiber film. The self-assembled chitin nanofibers have been used to fabricate composite materials with other polymeric components by appropriate procedures. For example, the self-assembled chitin nanofibers were used as reinforcing agent for a cellulose film by means of the regeneration procedure from the cellulose ion gel with BMIMCl [5].

Flavia Artizzu
Universitàdi Cagliari, Italy
Title: Multi-NIR molecular emitters for silicon-integrated optical devices

Biography: Dr. Artizzu received her Master Degree in Chemistry with honours in 2004. In the same year she was awarded the “Enrico Marcialis” Rotary Club Award for the most original and innovative master thesis in chemistry. Since then she has directed her research interests towards the fields of molecular materials with optical, magnetic and/or conducting properties as well as environmental chemistry, working as research fellow in the Molecular Materials Group at the University of Cagliari and conducting research as visiting scientist at the University of Leuven, BE (2007) and at the University of Gent, BE (2014). In particular, she has been mainly involved in the study of lanthanide-based luminescent materials growing interest in their chemistry as well as in the fundamental study of their photophysical properties, often performing research at the borderline between chemistry and physics and achieving a second PhD in Physics (2015) after the first one in Chemistry (2008). She is currently focusing her research interests on the development of nanocomposite materials based on lanthanide emitters for ICT and biomedical applications. She authored more than 40 publications on prestigious peer-reviewed journals, including several cover and invited articles, and has presented her research results at numerous international conferences.

Abstract: NIR-infrared emitting lanthanide ions, Yb3+, Nd3+ and Er3+ are currently at the heart of information and telecommunication (ICT) technologies, as their emission covers the so-called first (1 μm), second (1.33 μm) and third (1.55 μm) optical communication windows. For this reason, they attract great interest for the fabrication of optical fibers, amplifiers and laser devices for enhanced communication systems. Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), operating in the third telecom window, have already been implemented in optical fibers, and erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers have also been demonstrated in glass and crystal hosts[1]. The use of coordination complexes of these optically active ions with suitable organic ligands as emitting centers provide several advantages in this regard. Among them, the most important are: i) efficient indirect optical pumping through the ligand by light or electrical excitation; ii) suitability to be processed in solution through convenient techniques which allows for the easy fabrication of silicon-integrated optical devices.[2] Heterometallic assemblies containing two or more different lanthanide (Ln) ions as carriers of distinctive functionalities are particularly attractive as they can open unprecedented possibilities toward multifunctional materials. In particular, polynuclear heterolanthanide complexes containing Nd and Er ions would allow the development of multi-emissive devices to be used for duplex communication purposes. Moreover, enhanced properties may also be achieved through intermetallic communication. In fact, heterometallic luminescent materials where Ln ions can “talk” to each other, hold potential for the development of highly performing emitters as they allow more advanced and convenient ways of optical pumping.[3] In this contribution, we will present the results of our studies carried out in the framework of the ORISHA project (ORganic Integrated-on-Silicon Hybrid Amplifier) aimed at the design and processing of a silicon-integrated active slot waveguide based on multi-NIR emissive lanthanide assemblies.

Carlos Rodríguez
University of La Serena, Chile
Title: Optical and XPS analysis of the early growth stages of chemically deposited ZnS thin films

Biography: Research Associate of the Institutional Improvement Project "Energy Efficiency and Environmental Sustainability" at the University of La Serena. PhD in Engineering Sciences and Technology at the Free University of Brussels and PhD in Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Concepción. He is currently developing research in the synthesis of semiconductor materials for applications in photovoltaic solar cells and new materials for electrocatalysis of water. In addition, its theoretical basis is Solid State Physics and Materials Science. He has experience in teaching in the areas of Renewable Energy, Photovoltaic Solar Energy, Semiconductor Devices and Electronics.

Abstract: Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)–based solar cells have attracted the attention of the researchers due to the excellent energy conversion at laboratory scale (22.3 % with a device are of 0.5 cm2 [1]). Nevertheless, this device is composed by a chemically deposited CdS buffer layer, which is known to be toxic for the Cd content. In attempts to use more eco-friendly materials, several Cd–free buffer materials, such as ZnO, Zn(OH)2, ZnS, ZnSe, In2S3 and InSe, have been under intensive investigations [2–5]. Among these, ZnS has raised up as one of the best alternatives to replace CdS as buffer layer in CIGS–based solar cells. ZnS is non–toxic and cheaper than CdS. Moreover, the band gap of ZnS (3.6 eV) is wider than that of CdS (2.4 eV), which results in higher light transmission in the blue region and improves the short–circuit voltage of the solar cell device [6]. Up to date, CIGS-based solar cells with a chemically deposited ZnS buffer layer have achieved efficiencies up to 20.9 % [1] (in an area of 0.5 cm2), being the most efficient Cd–free CIGS–based solar cells. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is one of the most suitable methods to deposit semiconductor films for solar cells applications, since it is simple and cheaper (the film deposition take place at low temperatures and normal atmospheric pressure). CBD has been widely used to deposit ZnS thin films; however, the precursors’ solution used are toxic. In this work, ZnS thin films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates from a non–toxic chemical solution. For this, tri-sodium citrate and tartaric acid were used as a mixture of non-toxic complexing agents. Besides, the solution pH was adjusted to 10 by adding KOH. In order to study the early growth stage of non-toxic ZnS deposition, the obtained samples were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and XPS. From the optical characterization, it was observed that samples exhibited an optical transmission higher than 75 % in the visible range with a wide band gap. XPS analysis revealed that before 20 min of deposition time, there is no clear evidence of the film formation, and that sulfur is only detected after 20 min.

Materials Science 2017 | by: Scientific Future Group